Other plants containing cannabinoids

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Cannabinoids are not unique to cannabis

The cannabinoids that exist in plants are called phytocannabinoids, while endocannabinoids are the type of cannabinoids produced internally by animals and humans. Artificial cannabinoids are referred to as synthetic cannabinoids. Think of the word “cannabinoids” as the overall term for a chemical compound that can be broken down into small categories based on where it originates from.

It is the phytocannabinoids that we are specifically interested in, as these are found in a broad range of plants, many of which are household names. The following list is just a brief overview of some of the plants that contain cannabinoids: coneflower, electric daisy, strawflower, liverwort, and tea shrub (not to be confused with tea tree).

The shared attributes of all these plants not only point to their potential in traditional medicine, but their range of applications in the modern era. It does beg the question, if cannabinoids are found in cannabis and other common plants, why do we treat cannabis so differently?

To better understand how each of the previously mentioned plants has been used for centuries as part of traditional medicine, we will explore their origins, uses, and potential side effects.

Coneflower (Echinacea)

image of coneflower

You may be surprised to learn that coneflower is the first on our list of plants to contain phytocannabinoids. After all, it is incredibly likely that you have one growing in a pot in your house. They are grown both indoors and out for ornamental purposes because of their intense pink petals. Common in homes and beautiful to look at, coneflower can be split into two main species: Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaf coneflower) and Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower). Both are widely available, although the former is native to North America, and as such, probably more recognisable at a glance.

Coneflower does have uses beyond being visually appealing. Because of its phytocannabinoids, it has been used traditionally to reduce the inflammation of wounds, burns, and insect bites. The roots can also be chewed to help with toothache or throat infections. There have been noted side effects, though. Digestive issues, rashes, and bouts of asthma have all been documented as a result of using Echinacea.

Echinacea, an eye-catching and multi-faceted group of flowering plants, are celebrated for their decorative charm as well as medicinal properties. These vibrant perennials belong to the Asteraceae family and boast an array of species, hybrids, and cultivars that can be grown in various garden settings.

In this comprehensive blog post, we will delve into the fascinating world of Echinacea by exploring different coneflower characteristics and varieties, such as Echinacea laevigata with its tall flower spike or compact varieties like 'Avalanche' and 'Pink Poodle'. We will also discuss how to grow these stunning flowers from seed or division while providing tips on attracting wildlife through thoughtful planting choices.

Furthermore, we'll examine traditional herbal medicine uses of coneflowers - specifically focusing on immune system support derived from echinacea extracts. Lastly, we'll touch upon endangered species within the genus and conservation efforts aimed at preserving native plants. Join us as we uncover the many facets of coneflowers (Echinacea) that make them a valuable addition to any garden landscape.

Coneflower Characteristics and Varieties

Coneflowers, or Echinacea, are versatile perennials native to North America that come in various colors such as purple, white, pink, peachy orange, and tangerine. They are characterized by their inflorescences of 200-300 small fertile florets bunched together on the cone. Several species exist with varying characteristics; some are even federally endangered, requiring conservation efforts.

Echinacea laevigata: A Tall Flower Spike with Narrow-Petaled Purple Flowers

Echinacea laevigata is a unique coneflower variety known for its tall flower spikes and narrow-petaled purple blooms. This stunning plant can grow up to four feet in height and makes an excellent addition to any garden looking for a pop of color and vertical interest. To learn more about this particular species, check out the US Forest Service's Plant of the Week feature on Echinacea laevigata.

Compact Varieties for Smaller Gardens: 'Avalanche' (White) and 'Pink Poodle' (Pink)

  • 'Avalanche': This compact coneflower variety features pure white petals surrounding a golden-yellow cone. It grows up to two feet tall, making it perfect for small gardens or container planting. Learn more about this cultivar at Gardenia - Avalanche Coneflower.
  • 'Pink Poodle': Another great option for those with limited space, 'Pink Poodle' boasts vibrant pink petals and a height of just 18-24 inches. Its unique double-flowered form adds extra visual interest to any garden bed or container. Discover more about this variety at Gardenia - Pink Poodle Coneflower.

Unique Coneflower Examples like 'Ruby Giant,' 'Tennesseensis,' and 'Flame Thrower'

Beyond the traditional purple coneflowers, there are many unique varieties available that can add an unexpected twist to your garden design:

  1. 'Ruby Giant': This show-stopping cultivar features deep ruby-red petals surrounding a large central cone. It grows up to three feet tall and attracts pollinators with its rich color. Find out more about this stunning plant at Gardenia - Ruby Giant Coneflower.
  2. 'Tennesseensis': Also known as the Tennessee coneflower, this endangered species is native to the cedar glades of central Tennessee. With pale purple-pink petals and a greenish-yellow cone, it's both beautiful and ecologically important. Learn how you can help conserve this rare plant by visiting the Center for Plant Conservation's profile on Echinacea tennesseensis.
  3. 'Flame Thrower': Aptly named for its fiery colors, 'Flame Thrower' has bright orange-red petals fading into yellow tips surrounding a dark cone. This tall and striking plant will certainly be an attention-grabber in any garden, with its vibrant orange-red petals fading to yellow tips surrounding a dark cone. Check out more details about this fiery cultivar at Gardenia - Flame Thrower Coneflower.

Coneflowers can be a stunning enhancement to any garden, with an abundance of types featuring one-of-a-kind traits. With the right technique, it's easy to grow coneflowers from seed or division for even more colorful blooms in your landscape.

Growing Coneflowers from Seed or Division

Propagating coneflowers can be done through two methods: seed sowing and division. Both techniques result in new plants that will continue to grow year after year, adding vibrant colors and attracting wildlife to your garden. In this section, we'll explore the surface sowing technique for starting from seed and how to divide mature clumps for propagation.

Surface Sowing Technique for Starting from Seed

To begin growing coneflowers using the surface sowing technique, follow these steps:

  1. Select a well-draining soil mix with plenty of organic matter.
  2. Scatter seeds directly onto the soil surface, ensuring they are evenly distributed.
  3. Gently press the seeds onto the soil surface, not burying them; they need light to sprout.
  4. Maintain consistent moisture levels until germination occurs, usually within two weeks under optimal conditions.
  5. Once seedlings have developed their first set of true leaves, thin them out by removing weaker plants so that remaining ones have enough space to grow without competition.

Dividing Mature Clumps for Propagation

If you already have established coneflower plants in your garden, you can propagate more by dividing mature clumps into smaller sections. This method is best performed during early spring or fall when plant growth slows down. Follow these steps:

  1. Dig around the base of an established coneflower plant, taking care not to damage the roots.
  2. Gently lift the clump out of the ground and shake off excess soil to expose the root system.
  3. Using a sharp knife or garden spade, divide the clump into smaller sections with each containing at least one healthy shoot and an adequate root system for successful growth.
  4. Replant divided sections in prepared holes, ensuring they are spaced appropriately according to their mature size. Water thoroughly after planting.

By following these propagation methods, you can enjoy an abundance of colorful coneflowers in your garden while also supporting local ecosystems through pollination services provided by attracted butterflies and bees alike. To learn more about attracting wildlife with coneflowers, check out our section on how these vibrant-colored perennials provide essential support for various species here.

Growing coneflowers from seed or division is an easy and rewarding way to add beauty and wildlife support to your garden. By introducing vibrant blossoms, you can draw in beneficial insects that will foster a thriving habitat in your locale.

Attracting Wildlife with Coneflowers

These vibrant-colored perennials not only add visual appeal but also attract wildlife like butterflies and bees due to their nectar-rich blooms. Planting coneflowers in your garden provides essential support for the ecosystems they inhabit through pollination services provided by attracted butterflies and bees alike.

Pollinators Drawn to Colorful Coneflower Blooms

Coneflowers are a favorite among butterflies, such as the Monarch, Swallowtail, and Painted Lady species. These beautiful insects are drawn to the bright colors of Echinacea flowers and feed on their rich nectar sources. In addition, various bee species like honeybees and bumblebees visit these flowers for sustenance.

  • Monarch Butterflies: Known for their incredible migration journey across North America, Monarchs rely on native plants like coneflowers during their travels.
  • Swallowtail Butterflies: With large wings adorned in striking patterns, swallowtails can often be found fluttering around gardens filled with Echinacea varieties.
  • Bumblebees: As important pollinators of both wild plants and agricultural crops, bumblebees benefit from having access to diverse flower types such as coneflowers in gardens or natural habitats.

Benefits of Supporting Local Ecosystems with Native Plants

Incorporating native plant species like coneflowers into your garden helps maintain healthy ecosystems by providing food sources for various wildlife populations while promoting biodiversity within the environment. By planting these perennials, you can contribute to preserving native habitats and help maintain the environmental balance in your region. To learn more about native plants in your area, visit the Native Plant Finder provided by the National Wildlife Federation.

When designing a garden that supports pollinators and other wildlife species, consider incorporating additional native plant varieties alongside coneflowers. Some popular options include:

  • Milkweed: A crucial host plant for Monarch butterflies during their larval stage.
  • Asters: These late-season bloomers provide nectar sources for bees and butterflies when many other flowers have faded away.
  • Penstemon: With tubular-shaped flowers perfect for hummingbirds to feed on, penstemons add another layer of diversity to a wildlife-friendly garden.

Cultivating a garden rich in native plants like coneflowers not only creates an attractive landscape but also plays an essential role in supporting local ecosystems through attracting beneficial pollinators such as butterflies and bees. By doing so, you are contributing positively towards biodiversity preservation while enjoying beautiful blooms throughout the season.

Attracting wildlife with coneflowers can be a great way to support local ecosystems and create habitats for pollinators. Echinacea, renowned for its long-standing medicinal applications, is a vital element of herbal healing.

Traditional Herbal Medicine Uses of Echinacea

Coneflowers, or Echinacea, have been used traditionally for centuries as herbal medicine thanks to their immune-boosting properties. While modern research is still ongoing, incorporating Echinacea into your garden can serve as a reminder of the plant's rich history and potential health benefits.

Immune System Support from Coneflower Extracts

The roots, leaves, and flowers of coneflowers contain compounds that are believed to support the immune system. These compounds include alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives (such as cichoric acid), glycoproteins, and polysaccharides. Some studies suggest that these components may help stimulate white blood cell production and activity in response to infections or inflammation. The most common form of consumption is through Echinacea supplements, which come in various forms such as capsules, tablets, tinctures, teas or extracts.

Historical Uses in Traditional Medicine

In traditional Native American medicine practices dating back hundreds of years ago, Echinacea was utilized for treating various ailments like colds, flu symptoms, wounds, skin conditions, and more recently, even snakebites. European settlers who arrived in North America quickly adopted this versatile herb into their own medicinal repertoire due to its effectiveness and wide range of applications. Today, it remains a popular choice among those seeking natural remedies to maintain a healthy lifestyle. You can learn about other historical uses of echinaceas by visiting the Herbal Supplement Resource website.

  • Treating colds: One of the most well-known uses for Echinacea is in the treatment of colds and flu. It has been shown to help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms, as well as potentially prevent future infections.
  • Wound healing: Coneflowers have also been used topically for their antimicrobial properties, which can aid in wound healing by preventing infection.
  • Skin conditions: The anti-inflammatory effects of Echinacea may be beneficial for those suffering from skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis.

Though studies are still ongoing to assess the efficacy of Echinacea, many individuals persist in utilizing this versatile plant for its potential health advantages. By incorporating coneflowers into your garden, you not only add beauty but also pay homage to a long history of traditional herbal medicine use.

Traditional herbal medicine has been using coneflower extracts for centuries to support the immune system. With increasing threats to native species, it is important that we consider conservation efforts and responsible gardening practices in order to preserve these endangered plants.

Endangered Species and Conservation Efforts

Some species of Echinacea, like E. laevigata and E. tennesseensis, are federally endangered and require protection efforts from conservationists to preserve their native habitats across North America. Discover more about these uncommon species and how you can assist in safeguarding them by cultivating them responsibly in your own garden.

Identifying Endangered Coneflower Species

The two most notable endangered coneflower species are the Smooth Coneflower (Echinacea laevigata) and the Tennessee Purple Coneflower (Echinacea tennesseensis). These plants face threats such as habitat loss, invasive plant competition, over-collection for medicinal purposes, or other human activities that disturb their natural environment.

  • Echinacea laevigata: This tall flower spike with narrow-petaled purple flowers is found primarily in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia.
  • Echinacea tennesseensis: Characterized by its shorter stature compared to other coneflowers, this variety is endemic only to a few counties in central Tennessee.

Responsible Gardening Practices for Preserving Native Plants

To support the conservation of these endangered coneflower species while still enjoying them in your garden space, consider adopting responsible gardening practices outlined below:

  1. Obtain plants from reputable sources: Make sure to purchase your coneflowers from nurseries or suppliers that have a commitment to ethical sourcing and conservation. Avoid collecting wild specimens, as this can further deplete the already limited populations.
  2. Create suitable habitats: Provide appropriate growing conditions for these endangered species by replicating their native environments in your garden. This may include planting them in well-draining soil, providing adequate sunlight exposure, and maintaining proper moisture levels.
  3. Promote genetic diversity: Plant multiple individuals of each species to encourage cross-pollination and maintain healthy gene pools within the population. This will help ensure the long-term survival of these rare coneflower varieties.
  4. Educate others about conservation efforts: Share information with friends, family members, or fellow garden enthusiasts about the importance of preserving endangered plant species like Echinacea laevigata and Echinacea tennesseensis. Encourage responsible gardening practices among those around you.

Incorporating these rare coneflower varieties into your garden not only adds visual interest but also contributes positively towards ongoing conservation efforts aimed at protecting our precious native flora across North America.

FAQs in Relation to Coneflower (Echinacea)

What is the difference between Echinacea and coneflower?

Echinacea refers to a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, commonly known as coneflowers. There are several species within this genus, each with distinct characteristics. Coneflower is a general term used for these plants due to their cone-shaped flower heads. Essentially, all Echinaceas are coneflowers but not all coneflowers belong to the Echinacea genus.

What are the health benefits of coneflower Echinacea?

Coneflower (Echinacea) has been traditionally used for its potential immune-boosting properties. It may help reduce symptoms of colds and flu by stimulating white blood cell production and supporting respiratory health. Some studies also suggest that it might have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these benefits.

Is there scientific evidence for Echinacea?

There is some scientific evidence supporting the use of Echinacea for treating upper respiratory infections like colds or flu; however, results remain inconclusive due to varying study designs and methodologies (source). More rigorous research is necessary before drawing definitive conclusions about its effectiveness.

What is an interesting fact about coneflower?

An interesting fact about coneflowers (Echinaceas) is that they attract various pollinators such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds which contribute significantly towards maintaining local ecosystems' biodiversity while providing food sources for wildlife populations.


In conclusion, coneflowers are a beautiful and beneficial addition to any garden. Coneflowers are an ideal pick for gardeners of any level, boasting a variety of types and straightforward propagation methods that draw in pollinators. Additionally, the traditional medicinal uses of echinacea make it an important plant for supporting immune health.

However, it is also important to consider conservation efforts for endangered coneflower species and practice responsible gardening techniques. By supporting native plants like coneflowers in our gardens, we can help preserve local ecosystems.

Electric daisy (Acmella oleracea)

image of Acmella oleracea

Brazilians refer to Acmella oleracea as Jambú, although throughout the rest of the world, toothache plant is the more common name. The main body of the flower is actually hundreds of smaller flowers bunched together. The toothache plant gained notoriety for the intriguing effect it has when you chew the flower. Daring individuals would be met with an extreme numbing sensation. Only lasting 10–15 mins, it wasn’t long before herbalists realised that Acmella oleracea would be perfect for treating toothache. After all, many of us would rather chew on a flower than take a needle to the gum.

Despite the embarrassing production of saliva caused by its numbing, Acmella oleracea appears to carry few side effects. We would of course not encourage anyone to participate in consuming the plant raw, despite the hilarity that would follow. The sensation can be both unpleasant and uncomfortable. The juice from the leaves, while also producing a similar analgesic effect, is used as an extract in several traditional Brazilian cooking recipes.

The Electric Daisy (Acmella oleracea) is a fascinating plant with unique properties and versatile applications. Known for its numbing effect, the electric daisy has found uses in various fields, from culinary arts to traditional medicine.

In this blog post, we will explore the intriguing aspects of this attractive medicinal plant. We'll delve into the science behind its famously metallic 9-volt-battery flavor and how it interacts with our sensory receptors. Furthermore, we will discuss innovative recipes featuring electric daisy flowers as well as traditional Brazilian Amazonian dishes that incorporate jambu leaves.

Additionally, you'll learn about the medicinal applications of Acmella oleracea and how indigenous communities have utilized it for centuries. Finally, we will touch upon spilanthol's potential in cosmetics and its role in combating mosquito-borne illnesses.

Electric Daisy's Unique Numbing Properties

Acmella oleracea, also known as the electric daisy, produces a numbing and tingling sensation when chewed due to its compound called spilanthol. This unusual effect has been widely studied by scientists for various uses in traditional medicine and cuisine. It was used in the 19th century to combat toothaches because of its mild numbing properties.

Spilanthol's Chemical Structure and Defense Mechanism Against Predators

The main active component responsible for electric daisy's unique sensations is spilanthol, an alkylamide with a complex chemical structure that acts as a defense mechanism against predators. When ingested, it triggers specific receptors in our mouths that respond to temperature changes or mechanical pressure, causing numbness and tingling effects.

Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channels Stimulated by Electric Daisies

The sensory effects experienced after consuming electric daisies are attributed to their ability to stimulate transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels within our mouth tissues. These TRP channels play crucial roles in detecting environmental stimuli such as heat, cold, or physical pressure. The activation of these channels by spilanthol found in Acmella oleracea results in the characteristic numbing sensation associated with this plant.

  • TRPV1: Also known as the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 responds primarily to heat but can also be activated by compounds like spilanthol present in electric daisies.
  • TRPA1: This receptor is sensitive to cold temperatures and various chemical irritants. Spilanthol's ability to activate TRPA1 contributes to the tingling sensation experienced when consuming electric daisies.

To learn more about transient receptor potential ion channels, check out this comprehensive review on TRP channel functions in sensory transduction.

Electric daisy's unique numbing properties have been shown to be an effective defense mechanism against predators, making it a valuable resource for many cultures. Its culinary uses are just as impressive and offer exciting new ways of utilizing its powerful chemical structure in recipes from around the world.

Culinary Uses of Electric Daisy

The unique mouth-tingling effects of electric daisies have caught the attention of chefs who incorporate them into modern culinary creations such as cocktails rimmed with crushed petals or dishes flavored with jambu leaves like sushi or sorbets. In Brazilian Amazonian cuisine, cooked leaves from the plant are commonly used as greens under the name jambu.

Innovative Recipes Featuring Electric Daisy Petals

Electric daisy's numbing and tingling properties make it a fascinating ingredient for adventurous cooks and mixologists. Some innovative ways to use this intriguing flower in your kitchen include:

  • Cocktails - Crushed electric daisy petals can be used to rim cocktail glasses, adding an extra sensory experience to every sip.
  • Salads - Fresh electric daisy flowers can be added to salads for a surprising burst of flavor and sensation.
  • Desserts - Incorporate a blend of crushed petals into frozen treats like ice cream or sorbet for an unforgettable flavor.
  • Savory dishes - Use chopped fresh flowers in marinades, sauces, or even sprinkled on top of grilled meats for an unexpected twist on traditional flavors.

Traditional Brazilian Amazonian Dishes Using Jambu Leaves

In Brazil's Amazon region, Acmella oleracea is known as "jambu" and has been utilized in local cuisine long before its recent rise in popularity. Some traditional dishes featuring jambu leaves include:

  • Tacaca - A popular Amazonian soup made with jambu leaves, tucupi (a yellow sauce extracted from wild manioc root), dried shrimp, and small yellow peppers.
  • Vatapa - A creamy fish stew that incorporates jambu leaves along with other regional ingredients like coconut milk, palm oil, and fresh herbs.
  • Jambu com Charque - A simple dish of sauteed jambu leaves served alongside charque (dried salted beef).

Whether you're a culinary adventurer looking to experiment with new flavors or someone interested in exploring the rich traditions of Brazilian Amazonian cuisine, electric daisy offers an exciting world of possibilities. Its unique numbing properties can elevate your dishes and cocktails to new heights while also providing potential health benefits as part of a balanced diet.

The culinary uses of electric daisy are vast and varied, from traditional Brazilian Amazonian dishes to innovative recipes featuring petals. Moving on, medicinal applications of Acmella oleracea can be explored through natural remedies utilizing roots and Asháninka traditional practices.

Medicinal Applications of Acmella Oleracea

Apart from treating toothaches, roots from Acmella oleracea can be utilized for various medicinal purposes. This plant has been employed in traditional medicine to alleviate issues such as psoriasis, itching, bladder stones and ulcers. Furthermore, the Ashaninka people of Peru have found unique ways to use this plant in their healing practices.

Natural Remedies Utilizing Electric Daisy Roots

  • Treating Psoriasis: The anti-inflammatory properties of electric daisy roots can help soothe skin affected by psoriasis. Applying a paste made from crushed roots directly onto the affected area may provide relief.
  • Dissolving Bladder Stones: Some studies suggest that consuming an infusion made with electric daisy roots could aid in dissolving bladder stones and easing related pain (source).
  • Healing Ulcers: The antimicrobial effects of spilanthol found in electric daisies make it a potential natural remedy for healing ulcers when applied topically or consumed as an infusion.
  • Easing Itching: Due to its numbing effect on nerve endings caused by spilanthol content, applying crushed electric daisy leaves or using them as a poultice can help alleviate itching sensations on the skin.

Ashaninka Traditional Practices Involving Acmella Oleracea

The Ashaninka people of Peru have long recognized the benefits offered by Acmella oleracea plants. They use this plant as a wash to cure two supernatural conditions that present with physical symptoms:

  1. Chontaquiro: This condition is believed to be caused by the spirit of the chonta palm tree. Symptoms may include feverishness, headaches and muscular aches. The Ashaninka people use electric daisy leaves in a bath or steam treatment to alleviate these symptoms.
  2. Vientre Caido (Fallen Belly): This ailment affects women after childbirth and is characterized by abdominal pain and weakness. To treat it, Ashaninka healers create a poultice from electric daisy roots mixed with other medicinal plants like muna-muna (Clinopodium brownei) and apply it directly onto the affected area.

Incorporating Acmella oleracea into traditional medicine practices highlights its potential for providing relief from various ailments while respecting cultural beliefs and knowledge passed down through generations.

The medicinal applications of Acmella Oleracea have been studied for many years, with its roots being used in natural remedies and traditional practices. As the cosmetic industry takes an interest in spilanthol, we can expect to see potential future applications of this plant-derived compound emerging soon.

Cosmetic Industry Interest in Spilanthol

The cosmetic industry is taking notice of spilanthol, a compound found in electric daisies, due to its potential applications as a needle-free alternative to Botox. This intriguing property stems from spilanthol's ability to stimulate transient receptor potential ion channels within our mouth's tissues, which respond specifically during instances of temperature change.

Needle-Free Botox Alternatives Using Spilanthol

In recent years, researchers have been exploring the use of spilanthol as an innovative and non-invasive way to achieve similar effects as traditional Botox treatments. The application of spilanthol can lead to a numbing and tingling sensation, allowing facial muscles to relax temporarily in order to diminish the look of wrinkles and fine lines without having to go through any invasive treatments or injections. Some skincare brands are already incorporating electric daisy extracts into their products such as creams and serums (source). These topical solutions allow users to experience the benefits of spilanthol while avoiding any discomfort associated with needles.

  • Potential Benefits: Reduced fine lines and wrinkles; temporary muscle relaxation; non-invasive application.
  • Risks: As with any new ingredient, there may be unknown side effects or allergic reactions for some individuals. Always patch test before using a product containing spilanthol on your face.
  • Affordability: While still relatively niche in the market, products containing electric daisy extract tend to be more affordable than traditional Botox treatments but may vary depending on brand and formulation.

Potential Future Applications in Cosmetics

As research into the properties of spilanthol and electric daisies continues, it is likely that more cosmetic applications will be discovered. For example, studies have shown that spilanthol may also possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which could make it a valuable addition to skincare products designed to soothe irritated skin or combat signs of aging.

Additionally, its numbing effect has potential uses beyond just wrinkle reduction - some researchers are investigating whether spilanthol could be used as a natural alternative to synthetic anesthetics for minor dermatological procedures (source). As our understanding of this unique compound grows, so too does the likelihood that we'll see even more innovative applications within the cosmetic industry.

The potential of spilanthol to revolutionize the cosmetic industry is undeniable, and electric daisy may be able to contribute even further with its unique properties. By exploring how this plant extract can target specific mosquito species, we could make a significant impact in reducing disease transmission around the world.

Electric Daisy's Role in Combating Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

The Acmella oleracea, or electric daisy, has been found effective in killing mosquito larvae, specifically targeting Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes responsible for spreading diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and the emerging Zika virus. This makes electric daisies an important botanical tool against insect-borne illnesses.

Targeting Specific Mosquito Species with Electric Daisy Extracts

Studies have shown that extracts from the electric daisy plant can effectively kill mosquito larvae of specific species known to transmit deadly diseases. The spilanthol compound present in the plant exhibits larvicidal properties that are toxic to these particular types of mosquitoes while remaining safe for other organisms.

  • Anopheles albimanus: This species is one of the primary vectors for transmitting malaria throughout Central America and parts of South America.
  • Aedes aegypti: Known as the "yellow fever mosquito," this species spreads not only yellow fever but also dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus.

The Potential Impact on Reducing Disease Transmission

Incorporating electric daisy extracts into existing vector control strategies could significantly reduce disease transmission rates by eliminating large numbers of disease-carrying mosquitoes at their larval stage. By reducing populations before they mature into adult insects capable of transmitting pathogens to humans through bites, we may be able to decrease instances of infection among vulnerable populations.

Furthermore, the use of electric daisy extracts as a larvicide could potentially reduce reliance on chemical insecticides that can be harmful to the environment and other non-target species. As an eco-friendly alternative, Acmella oleracea may play a crucial role in sustainable mosquito control efforts moving forward.

Research is ongoing to better understand how best to utilize electric daisies for combating mosquito-borne illnesses while minimizing any potential negative impacts on ecosystems or human health. The promising results thus far indicate that this versatile plant has much more to offer than just its unique numbing properties and culinary applications.

FAQs in Relation to Electric Daisy (Acmella Oleracea)

What are the benefits of electric daisy flowers?

Electric daisy (Acmella oleracea) offers several benefits, including its unique numbing properties due to spilanthol. It has culinary uses in innovative recipes and traditional Amazonian dishes, medicinal applications as a natural remedy for toothaches and other ailments, cosmetic industry interest for needle-free botox alternatives, and potential use in combating mosquito-borne illnesses.

Are buzz buttons legal?

Yes, buzz buttons or electric daisies are legal. They are edible flowers used in various cuisines worldwide. However, it is essential to source them from reputable suppliers to ensure their safety and quality.

What are the benefits of buzz button flowers?

Buzz button flowers offer similar benefits as electric daisies since they belong to the same plant species (Acmella oleracea). These include unique numbing effects useful in food preparation and natural remedies; potential applications in cosmetics; and possible roles in reducing disease transmission by targeting specific mosquito species.

How does Acmella oleracea make you feel?

Consuming Acmella oleracea can cause a tingling sensation on your tongue due to spilanthol's interaction with transient receptor potential ion channels. This effect leads to mild numbness that lasts for several minutes but may vary depending on individual sensitivity levels.


Its spilanthol compound offers numbing properties, and its jambu leaves are used in traditional Brazilian Amazonian dishes. The roots of the electric daisy have medicinal uses, and the cosmetic industry has taken an interest in spilanthol as a needle-free botox alternative. Additionally, electric daisy extracts may be useful in combating mosquito-borne illnesses by targeting specific mosquito species.

Electric daisy flowers, also known as toothache plants or eyeball plants, produce composite flower heads with smaller flowers. The flower buds of the electric daisy have a famously metallic 9-volt-battery flavor, making them a unique addition to any dish. In Brazilian cuisine, the fresh leaves are used in dishes such as arroz de jambu, which combines cooked leaves with rice. The cooked green has a unique flavor that is often described as a pseudo-electric effect, similar to the sensation of a cotton ball on the tongue.

Aside from its culinary uses, electric daisy is also an attractive medicinal plant. In the Asteraceae family, it shows potential as a natural pain reliever and anti-inflammatory. In Paraguay, roux made from macerated vegetation of the electric daisy is used to treat toothaches. The plant source is also used in an exotic cocktail called chacho de agua, where the bruised leaves are combined with fresh spinach and Inula bifrons.

In conclusion, electric daisy (Acmella oleracea) has diverse potential benefits ranging from culinary to medicinal and beyond. With ongoing research into this fascinating plant's properties,

Strawflower (Helichrysum)

image iof Helichrysum

Not many individuals will know of the strawflower, mainly because Helichrysum is a genus that has over 600 species of plant linked to it. Belonging to the broader sunflower family, visually, all of the Helichrysum genera are similar in appearance, despite growing in different environments all over the world. The leaves grow oblong to lanceolate, while the flowers look similar to that of a carnation in bloom. Colours vary from deep purples and reds to vibrant pinks and yellows.

Although mainly used as an ornamental plant, strawflower is also harvested for its aroma. Burnt sugar and ham may not sound like an appealing perfume, but blended with other scents, the aromatic oil from strawflower is very popular.

Strawflower (Helichrysum) is a fascinating and versatile plant, known for its everlasting flowers and vibrant colors. This blog post delves into the unique characteristics of strawflowers, including their modified leaves called bracts that set them apart from other blooms. We will also discuss the ideal growing conditions for these captivating plants to ensure they thrive in your garden.

As we progress further, you'll learn about various propagation techniques for strawflowers, such as seed propagation and how to protect your seeds against aster yellows virus. Additionally, we will explore companion planting options that can enhance your strawflower garden's beauty and overall health.

Lastly, if outdoor gardening isn't an option or you're looking for indoor alternatives, this post introduces Golden Pothos - a low-maintenance plant with impressive benefits that can be easily grown indoors alongside Strawflower (Helichrysum).

Strawflower Characteristics and Growing Conditions

Strawflowers, also known as Helichrysum, are unique plants that resemble daisies but have modified leaves called bracts covered in fine hairs. They thrive best in sandy and rocky soils with a mildly acidic to neutral pH level and prefer temperatures of 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit during the day and around 60 degrees at night. These adaptable flowers can withstand various environmental conditions making them popular among gardeners.

Bracts: The Distinct Feature Setting Strawflowers Apart from Other Flowers

The most distinguishing characteristic of strawflowers is their modified leaves called bracts. These bracts give the flower its common name "everlasting flower" or "paper daisy" due to their papery texture. As members of the Asteraceae family, these flowers blossom throughout summer providing an array of vibrant colors ranging from yellow, orange, pink, red, white, and even purple.

Ideal Soil Types for Growing Healthy Strawflowers

To grow strawflowers successfully, it's essential to choose the right type of soil. Strawflowers thrive in well-draining soil with a mildly acidic to neutral pH level (6-7). Sandy or rocky soils work best for these plants since they allow water drainage while retaining some moisture needed by heavy feeders like strawflowers. To improve your existing soil quality for growing these beautiful blooms, follow this guide on amending garden soil.

  • Sandy Soil: This type of soil provides excellent drainage which prevents root rot caused by excessive moisture.
  • Rocks: Adding rocks to your garden bed can help improve drainage and create a more suitable environment for strawflowers.

Temperature Preferences for Optimal Growth

Optimal growth of strawflowers necessitates temperatures between 65-70°F during the day and about 60°F in the evening. These plants are sensitive to extreme temperatures, so it's crucial to monitor their surroundings closely. In areas with high humidity, strawflowers may require additional care such as increased airflow or proper plant spacing to prevent diseases caused by excess moisture.

To ensure that your Xerochrysum bracteatum blooms beautifully throughout the season, provide them with full sun exposure (at least six hours per day) which will keep your strawflowers blooming steadily all summer long.

Strawflower characteristics and growing conditions are key to ensuring a healthy crop of flowers, so it is important to understand the bracts, soil types, temperature preferences and other requirements for optimal growth. With an understanding of these needs in place, propagating strawflowers can be done with ease by following the steps outlined below.

Propagation Techniques for Strawflowers

Growing strawflowers from seed is the most common method used by gardeners. To ensure successful growth, it's essential to provide them with plenty of light while protecting them from diseases such as aster yellows virus, a condition that affects many types of flowering plants.

Seed Propagation Process for Strawflower Cultivation

  1. Select high-quality seeds: Choose fresh and healthy-looking seeds to increase your chances of successful germination.
  2. Sow the seeds: Scatter the seeds on top of moist soil in a shallow container or tray. Lightly press them into the soil without burying them completely, as they need light to germinate.
  3. Maintain moisture levels: Keep the soil consistently moist but not soggy during germination. Using a spray bottle can help you maintain proper moisture levels without overwatering.
  4. Create humidity: Cover your container with plastic wrap or place it inside a clear plastic bag to create an environment with higher humidity, which strawflowers prefer during their early stages of growth.
  5. Growth monitoring: Monitor your seedlings closely and remove any coverings once they start sprouting (usually within two weeks). Transplant individual seedlings into larger pots when they have at least two sets of true leaves.

Light Requirements During Germination Stage

To grow strawflowers successfully, providing ample light is crucial throughout their development process. During germination, make sure your seeds receive at least six hours per day of bright, indirect sunlight. If natural light is insufficient, consider using grow lights to supplement their needs.

Protecting Your Strawflower Seeds Against Aster Yellows Virus

Aster yellows virus can stunt the growth and development of your strawflowers, leading to poor blooming or even plant death. To protect your plants from this disease:

  • Maintain cleanliness: Keep your garden free from debris and weeds that may harbor pests like leafhoppers - the primary carriers of aster yellows virus.
  • Pest control: Implement a regular pest management program by using insecticidal soaps or other organic methods to keep leafhopper populations in check.
  • Monitor health: Regularly inspect your strawflowers for signs of infection such as yellowing leaves or stunted growth. Remove any infected plants immediately to prevent the spread of the disease.

Growing healthy and vibrant strawflowers requires patience and attention to detail during propagation. By following these tips on seed sowing, light requirements, and protecting against diseases like aster yellows virus, you'll be well on your way towards enjoying beautiful everlasting flowers blooming steadily in your garden.

Propagating strawflowers is an exciting and rewarding experience for any gardener, but it's important to understand the seed propagation process as well as necessary light requirements during germination. Additionally, preventive measures should be taken against aster yellows virus in order to ensure a successful harvest. Moving on from there, companion planting options can further enhance your strawflower garden by combining various species with other plants such as Hosta plantaginea or Common Sunflower.

Companion Planting Options for Strawflower Gardens

One notable aspect of strawflowers is their versatility when it comes to companion planting - they pair well with other fragrant or visually striking flowers. In this section, we will explore two excellent options for complementing your strawflower garden: Fragrant Plantain Lily (Hosta plantaginea) and Common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

Pairing Helichrysum species with Fragrant Plantain Lily (Hosta plantaginea)

Fragrant Plantain Lily, also known as Hosta plantaginea, originates from Asia and boasts large, heart-shaped leaves that create a lush green backdrop for the xerochrysum bracteatum, or strawflowers. The white trumpet-shaped blossoms of the Hostas provide a lovely contrast to the vibrant colors of the everlasting flower while releasing an enchanting fragrance.

  • Growth conditions: Hostas thrive in moist soil and partial shade but can tolerate some sun exposure if adequately watered.
  • Maintenance: These plants are low-maintenance; however, they may attract slugs which can be controlled using organic methods like beer traps or diatomaceous earth.
  • Blooming period: Flowers blossom between late summer and early fall, ensuring your garden remains lively even after your paper daisies have finished blooming.

Combining Common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) with your Strawflower Garden

The bright yellow petals on tall stems reaching up towards the sky characterize Common Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus). Their cheerful appearance makes them an ideal companion for strawflowers, adding a touch of whimsy to your garden. Both plants belong to the Asteraceae family and share similar growing requirements.

  • Growth conditions: Sunflowers are heavy feeders that require full sun and well-draining soil. Soil types suitable for growth range from sandy to clay, provided the necessary nutrients are supplied.
  • Maintenance: These tall flowers may need staking for support during windy weather but generally require minimal care once established.
  • Blooming period: Common Sunflowers bloom from mid-summer through early fall, overlapping with strawflower's blooming season and ensuring a steady display of vibrant colors in your garden.

Incorporating these companion plants into your strawflower garden not only enhances its visual appeal but also helps create a diverse ecosystem that attracts beneficial insects while deterring pests. Additionally, both Fragrant Plantain Lily and Common Sunflower provide excellent cut flowers for indoor arrangements alongside your cut strawflowers - allowing you to enjoy their beauty both outdoors and indoors.

Companion planting with Strawflower is a great way to ensure your garden has an abundance of color and texture. With the right conditions, Golden Pothos can be a beautiful addition to any indoor garden setting.

Indoor Gardening Alternatives Featuring Golden Pothos

For indoor gardening enthusiasts who want something more low-maintenance than outdoor gardens featuring strawflowers, the Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is an excellent choice. This hard-to-kill flowering houseplant can grow in dark environments and still produce stunning foliage.

Characteristics of Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum)

The Golden Pothos, also known as Devil's Ivy or Money Plant, is a popular indoor plant that belongs to the Araceae family. It features heart-shaped leaves with a glossy texture and variegated green-yellow coloration. The plant has trailing vines that can reach up to 10 feet long when grown indoors, making it perfect for hanging baskets or climbing trellises.

Growing conditions for a thriving indoor Golden Pothos plant

  • Light: While this versatile houseplant can tolerate low light levels, it thrives best in bright indirect sunlight. Place your Golden Pothos near windows with filtered light or under fluorescent lights for optimal growth.
  • Soil: A well-draining potting mix is essential for preventing root rot in your pothos plants. Mix peat moss, perlite and vermiculite for an ideal soil environment to grow your Golden Pothos.
  • Maintenance: To maintain its lush appearance and encourage new growth, prune back any overly long vines periodically by pinching off their tips using clean scissors or pruning shears. Water your pothos only when the top inch of soil feels dry to the touch. Overwatering can lead to root rot and other diseases, so it's essential to let the plant dry out between waterings.
  • Humidity: Golden Pothos plants are not as sensitive to humidity levels as strawflowers, making them ideal for indoor environments with varying humidity conditions. However, they do appreciate a moderate level of humidity (around 40-50%).

Benefits of including low-maintenance plants like Golden Pothos in your indoor garden

Incorporating easy-to-grow houseplants such as Golden Pothos into your indoor garden offers several benefits:

  1. Air purification: According to a NASA study on air-purifying plants, pothos is effective at removing common household toxins like formaldehyde and benzene from the air.
  2. Mental health boost: Caring for houseplants has been shown in studies (source) to improve mental well-being by reducing stress levels and increasing feelings of relaxation.
  3. Ease of care: The low maintenance requirements make it an excellent choice for busy individuals or those new to gardening who want a rewarding experience without investing too much time or effort.

Is Helichrysum the same as strawflower?

Yes, Helichrysum is commonly known as strawflower. The name "strawflower" refers to the papery texture of its petals that resemble dried flowers. There are over 600 species in the genus Helichrysum, but one of the most popular and widely cultivated species is Helichrysum bracteatum.

What is the significance of strawflower?

The significance of strawflowers lies in their unique appearance, longevity, and versatility. Their vibrant colors and papery petals make them ideal for fresh or dried floral arrangements. They symbolize strength and resilience due to their ability to retain color even after drying, making them a popular choice for everlasting bouquets.

What are some fun facts about strawflowers?

  • Their scientific name, Helichrysum, comes from Greek words meaning "sun" (helios) and "gold" (chrysos) because they resemble small golden suns.
  • Australian aboriginal people used a native species called Everlasting Daisy (Xerochrysum bracteatum), which belongs to the same family as Strawflower.
  • In addition to being ornamental plants, some varieties have medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory effects.

How do you care for a Helichrysum strawflower?

To care for a Helichrysum strawflower, provide full sun exposure and well-draining sandy or rocky soil with mild acidity or neutrality. Maintain an ideal temperature range of 60-75°F (15-24°C) and protect the plant from diseases like aster yellows virus. Regularly water young plants while allowing established ones to dry out between watering sessions. For more detailed care instructions, visit Gardening Know How.


These flowers are heavy feeders and require moist soil to thrive. However, they can also grow in sandy soil and are known to do well in full sun.

When growing Strawflowers, it's important to note that they are sensitive to humidity. To ensure that your Strawflowers are blooming steadily, it's best to keep them in a dry environment. These flowers are also known for their modified leaves called bracts, which give them a unique appearance.

If you want to grow Strawflowers, it's important to provide them with the right conditions. Light is essential for Strawflowers to thrive, so make sure they are exposed to plenty of sunlight. Additionally, Strawflowers are heavy feeders, so it's important to provide them with the right nutrients.

Strawflowers are also known as everlasting flowers or paper daisies. They belong to the Asteraceae family and are native to Australia. These flowers are often used in dried flower arrangements due to their long-lasting nature.

If you're interested in growing Strawflowers, there are a few things to keep in mind. These flowers require full sun exposure and well-draining soil. They can also be grown in containers, making them a great option for small spaces.

As you explore different plants for your garden or indoor space, consider the environmental benefits and symbolism of the Common Sunflower and the resilience of Golden Pothos as a low-maintenance indoor option. With its bright colors and unique texture, adding Strawflower (Helichrysum) to your collection can bring joy and beauty into any space.

Liverwort (Radula marginata)

Liverwort (Radula marginata)

Growing natively in New Zealand, liverwort holds a special place in the hearts of the Maori. Maori people have a belief that if an object, story, or memory is treasured, it becomes a “taonga”. Taonga is the Polynesian equivalent to a Western national treasure, like the Queen's crown jewels. For the Maori, liverwort falls into the category of taonga, creating an interesting dilemma for the New Zealand government.

The reason being, liverwort shares some striking similarities to cannabis. The cannabinoids within liverwort, primarily a chemical compound called perrottetinene, produces an effect similar to the THC found in cannabis. Although the result is significantly milder, it has still drawn some concern from governmental bodies.

For now, owning and growing liverwort is legal. The Plant & Food research project, which is sponsored by New Zealand, has awarded several grants to further study into this intriguing plant. Although there are anecdotal accounts of the plant's effects, results differ hugely, hence the reason for trying to understand the plant's attributes on a scientific level.

When it comes to the fascinating world of Liverwort (Radula marginata), there is much more than meets the eye. This ancient plant species not only provides insights into plant evolution but also holds potential for medicinal and recreational applications due to its unique chemical composition.

This post will examine the discovery of perrottetinene in Radula marginata and compare its psychoactive characteristics to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) found in cannabis. We will then explore the medicinal applications of perrottetinene, such as inhibition of prostaglandins and development of new painkillers.

Furthermore, we'll discuss how Radula marginata has been marketed as an alternative to cannabis for recreational use due to its mild psychotropic effects. Lastly, we'll examine how understanding liverwort's adaptation through chemical composition analysis can shed light on bryophytes' role as ancient land plants and their interaction with our nervous system.

Liverwort's Psychoactive Properties

Radula marginata, a type of liverwort found in New Zealand and Tasmania, has gained attention for its psychoactive properties. Researchers discovered that it contains perrottetinene, a substance that acts on the brain similarly to THC from marijuana. This finding supports previous research by Japanese phytochemist Yoshinori Asakawa.

Discovery of Perrottetinene in Liverwort

In 1994, Yoshinori Asakawa first identified the presence of perrottetinene in Radula marginata. Subsequent research has substantiated the 1994 discovery of perrottetinene in Radula marginata, and examined its possible effects on humans. A recent study published in Science Advances provides more detailed information about the chemical structure and pharmacological properties of perrottetinene.

Comparison with Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

  • Molecular Structur

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